The Order of Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim, originates from Cagliostro’s Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry presented to the world in 1777.

The first organized works in this rite were performed in 1779 in Mitau (former capital city of united Duchy of Courland and Semigallia). In 1785, the first mother lodge of the rite was established in Leon (France).

In 1805, in Milan, upon the basis of the Egyptian Rite and various magical and cabbalistic rituals, was established the Rite of Misraim. Originally it had 77 degrees, and in 1811 it was enlarged till 90 degrees.

In 1815, in Montauban, two learned masons Samuel Harris and Marconis de Negre, have created the rite of Mempis, consisting of 92 degrees. Later the rite was enlarged till 95 and 97 degrees. Besides the first 3 symbolic degrees of masonry, the rite included many higher degrees known in France and Great Britain.

The essence of both Masonic rites is the idea of an ancient initiatic succession starting from ancient Egyptian pyramid builders.

In 1881, Italian politician General Giuseppe Garibaldi being both the Sovereign Grand Master of the Rite of Misraim, and Gran Hyerophant of the Rite of Memphis, decided to merge the two rites into one – the Rite of Mempis-Misraim.  Yet, there are still exist lodges that do not support this Garibaldi’s decision and continue to work in the rite of Memphis and in the rite of Misraim.


After Giuseppe Garibaldi, the post of Gran Hyerophant of the Rite was inherited by an English Freemason John Yarker, after that – Theodor Reuss (cofounder of O.T.O, Ordo Templi Orientis), Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse (Papus).

From 1978, the Gran Hyerophant of the order of APRMM is Michael Bertiaux.  It is important to note that APRMM for Europe and the French speaking countries is not an administrative part or a subordinate organization of APRMM.

Michael Bertiaux is one of the most famous American occultists, author of Voudon Gnostic Workbook.

Bertiaux was initiated into the Rite of Memphis- Misraim by the Gran Hierophant of one of its branches Hector-Franсois Jean-Maine, the son of Lucien-Francois Jean-Maine – one of the students of Papus, in 1964, in Haiti.

Lucien-Francois Jean-Maine has received his initiation,in 1899, into “Cabbalistic Gnostic Church of Memphis –Misraim” – such was an official name of this line of succession that goes back to Bernard-Raymond Fabré-Palaprat, founder of l’Ordre du Temple (1804).

The order of APRMM-Europe and FLC appeared in 1994 when the Gran Hierophant of the order of APRMM Michael Bertiaux separated the jurisdiction over Europe and the French speaking countries from APRMM.

The first Gran Hierophant of APRMM-European and FLC became Joel Duez.  Famous French occultist and writer, Joel Duez wrote many books on Masonry, magic, mysticism, cabbala, alchemy etc. Some of his books, such as Mystiquesoufie et kabbalistique: Rituels secrets, and Traitéd’angéologie et de démonologie:  A l’usage des exorcisteshave already became “classics”. For many years Duez led very active Masonic life, opening lodges throughout the world.

In 2013, Duez transferred his powers to Israeli writer Alexander Rybalka, author of various books on Cabbala and Masonry. Duez keeps the title of Honorary Grand Hierophant.

Currently, the order of APRMM-Europe and FLC supervises the works of National Sanctuaries in many European countries, and also helps to conduct the works of rite of Memphis-Misraim in the USA.

The Order of APRMM-Europe and FLC is a part of the World Association of Egyptian Obediences (WAEO) that unites lodges, sanctuaries and orders working in the rite of Memphis-Misraim, Memphis, Misraim, and the Egyptian rite of Cagliostro.